March 5, 2013

The Matrix (1999)
Starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, and Carrie-Ann Moss

Comments:   Yes, I will be the first to admit that calling a movie with an 8.7 rating on the Internet Movie Database "underloved" is kind of ridiculous.  I mean, according to people who watch a lot of movies on the internet, The Matrix has been named one of the 250 best movies of all time.  In fact I can almost guarantee that it will be the most highly ranked IMDB movie I am going to write about on this countdown.  So yes, let's get that argument out of the way right at the start.  Yes, I know that a TON of people out there love The Matrix.  Yes, a ton of people out there love it to death.

But here is the thing.   I still don't think that it is revered as it should be.  8.7 rating be damned.  

The Matrix is one of the most awesome movie theater experiences that has ever been made.

I already wrote about this in my Police Academy review, and I am sure I will mention it again many times over during this countdown, but one of the things that drives me absolutely crazy when people talk about movies is this argument:  "Well the sequels sucked, and that makes the original suck too."  This is the kind of logic that drives me absolutely insane.  In fact I would rank it right up there along with this gem:  "Well the movie version sucked so that ruined the book."

Well The Matrix was never a book, so the second part of that paragraph doesn't really apply to it.   But it was definitely an awesome movie.  And it definitely had two lackluster sequels.  And because of that, to this day, when people talk about The Matrix, this is almost always what they will say about it.  They will almost always say "Yeah the first one was cool but then the sequels ruined it."

And I'm sorry, but no.  That's not how it works.

The Matrix was awesome and innovative and fun and amazing in 1999.  And it continues to be awesome and innovative and fun and amazing in 2013.  As Stephen King once said when people claimed that all the bad Stephen King movies have ruined his books, "Really?  The books that you love are still sitting up there on your shelf, same as they've always been."

So anyway there is my defense of The Matrix.  And why I feel so strongly that it belongs on this list.  The sequels did NOT ruin the Matrix.  It was absolutely the coolest movie I had ever seen in my life when I saw it in a theater in 1999, and I just watched it again recently for the first time in years, and it is STILL awesome.  This is one of those movies that I could watch every week.  In fact I just showed it to my kids (who are 10 and 12), and I was thrilled to realize that they are old enough now that they can actually sort of understand it.  

My 12 year old daughter watched it and she said "That was a really neat idea for a movie."  My 10 year old son watched it and he said, "Yay, fighting!"  

Either way, this is one of those rare movies that has a little something for everyone.

It also has spoons

Unfortunately, The Matrix is one of those movies that is almost pointless to try to write about.  Because anyone who grew up in the 90's has already seen it.  In fact I know a lot of people who grew up in the 90's who remember not only who they were with when they saw it, they also remember what theater they were in when they saw it.  Because it was honestly one of the most memorable and life changing movies of the 90's.  If you saw this movie in a theater, and you loved it, then you REALLY loved it.  This was one of those movies like Star Wars that if you got into it, it really sort of changed your life.

Bill, I totally blew those guys away!  They're total metalheads!

Now, if you haven't seen The Matrix before (or God forbid, if you have never even heard of it before), well I don't really know what to tell you.  I mean, this is one of those movies that is just sort of indescribable.  It is mostly science fiction, but it is also a philosophy movie.  It is heavy on action, but it is also heavy on exposition and ideas.  It is particularly creative when it comes to the concepts of reality and free will.

Oh, and it also had what were widely considered the most incredible special effects in Hollywood history up to that point.  We mustn't forget that.

Including the famous "bullet time" effect

The special effects in The Matrix were so amazing at the time that they were practically ALL YOU EVER SAW IN MOVIE AND TV PARODIES for the next twelve months.  Seriously, watch anything that parodied pop culture between the years 1999 and 2000.  Odds are that at least 50% of the stuff that you watch will have some sort of a Matrix bullet time parody.  It was all over the place.  In fact it got to a point that Matrix parodies were so popular and were in so many places and were so pandemic that I actually wrote a comedy sketch asking America to knock it off.  That was one of the last comedy sketches I ever wrote for a website called Saturday Night You.  I didn't even have a premise for the sketch.  I just knew it was 2000 and I was sick of every god damn thing in America thinking it had to include a bullet time parody.

More bullet time fun.  Whoa Bill, I'm spinning.

By the way, another thing I have to point out about The Matrix.

So many people love to refer to it as "a special effects movie."  That is practically all you ever hear when you talk about The Matrix.  "Yeah it was stuff blowing up and kung fu and then all that bullet time shit."  But that is such a cheap way to describe this movie.  I mean, yeah, the special effects in The Matrix are amazing.  They were amazing then and they are amazing now.  This movie is 14 years old by this point and none of those amazing special effects from the 20th century even feel remotely dated.

Especially this one, the very underrated glass explosion

But that is the thing.  The Matrix is so much more than just a special effects movie.  Yeah, of course the effects are awesome, but the philosophy in this movie is pretty awesome too.  In fact this movie is so deep on a philosophical level that I think a lot of people tend to forget about that.  They tend to just remember the special effects.  They tend to forget that 80% of the movie is Morpheus trying to explain that the world we think we know is not actually the real world.  And again, this is a concept that has rarely ever been pulled off as successfully or as creatively as the Wachowski Brothers pulled it off in The Matrix.

I know this isn't a real piece of steak.  And I've decided that I don't care.

In my opinion there are four different ways you can watch The Matrix.  There are four different ways you can interpret a movie as creative as this one.  And what is amazing is that all four ways of viewing it are different, and all four ways are fulfilling.  

The first way of looking at the Matrix is the superficial one.  You can just look at it as a special effects showcase.

Again, this isn't my favorite way to look at a movie like this, because I feel it is incredibly superficial.  But hey, the special effects in The Matrix are famous for a reason.  They are awesome, and no one can deny that.  So if you just like people flying around in the air and doing weird fourth dimensional kung fu and shooting and spinning shit then yes.  If you like special effects movies, The Matrix is practically the Citizen Kane of those.

I love this shot

Okay that is the first way of looking at The Matrix.

The second way of looking at The Matrix, which is a little more ambitious than the first, is to look at it as a straight science fiction movie.  Now, this isn't my favorite way of looking at it either, because I am not the world's biggest fan of sci fi.  But many people out there DO love science fiction, and I have heard many of them claim that The Matrix is the best science fiction movie of the 90's.  Again, I'm not really in a position to argue for this or against this, because I don't really watch all that much sci fi.  But it is widely believed that The Matrix redefined what science fiction was going into the 21st century.  

And, well, if you like science fiction, I should point out that The Matrix is already considered one of the Citizen Kanes of science fiction movies.

Especially because of the bad guys

And then there is the third way of looking at The Matrix.  You can look at it as a philosophy movie.  You can look at it as an essay about reality and about the nature of free will.

This is a very ambitious way of looking at a movie like this, and I'm sure that thousands of philosophy majors could sit here and write pages about how amazing The Matrix is.  And how it delves into areas of philosophy that other movies are afraid to go.  In fact, if I was smart I would go get my friend Justin to come and write this paragraph instead of me.  Because he is a philosophy guy, and I'm not.  But hey, I do know enough about philosophy to be able to tell you that philosophy students WORSHIP The Matrix.  In fact I would bet that they are more loyal to this movie than special effects junkies are.  And it is a very rare movie that can inspire that kind of devotion from two different segments of the audience.

Oh yeah.  And of course The Matrix is considered one of the Citizen Kanes of  modern philosophy movies.  

Truth?  Or Happiness?  Your choice.

And then there is the fourth way of watching The Matrix.  My favorite.

The way I like to watch The Matrix is as a superhero origin story.

You know all those superhero movies that have come out between the years 2000-2013?  You know how practically every fourth or fifth movie these days is some random superhero getting an origin story?  Or a reboot of a previously filmed origin story?  Or an origin story that is like everyone else's origin story?

Well try watching The Matrix as a superhero movie sometime.  

Watch it that way and you will see that it is the single best superhero origin story that has ever been filmed.

Eat shit, Batman.  I got this.

You know, I guess there is a fifth way of watching the Matrix too.  If you want to really make me mad, you can watch it as "part of a franchise."  But whatever.  Seriously, go to hell if you do that.  The Matrix sequels have nothing in common with the original.  Just watch The Matrix as a one-off superhero origin story and you will be reminded how awesome it is.

You watch Neo fly off into the sunset at the end, and you hear that techno music start up, and I have never seen a movie that ends with that much promise and that much ambition.  I remember seeing The Matrix in a theater in 1999 and I remember thinking about it afterwards, "I am never going to see a movie as good as this again.  This is it.  This is the pinnacle.  The Wachowski Brothers have officially broken all movies for me."

In the end, there is only one way I can describe The Matrix, and that is "awesome."  You knew it when you saw it, and there was a reason that it became as big a deal as it did.  Nearly every single frame of this movie is designed to make you sit back and think "Wow, the way they did that was cool."  I honestly have never seen a movie that was even remotely like it.

Even minor effects like this were incredible

I have always said that 1999 was my favorite year for movies ever.  From top to bottom, nearly every single movie that came out that year was interesting and fun.  And of course, I wouldn't be alone in saying that my favorite movie of 1999 was The Matrix.

There is no way to describe that feeling that you had the first time you saw a movie like this on a big screen in a theater.  I mean, I wasn't old enough to see Star Wars when it originally came out, but I have to imagine that the feeling of walking out of Star Wars in 1977 was a lot like the feeling of walking out of The Matrix in 1999.  I have to believe that people in 1977 and people in 1999 both thought the exact same thing.  They both thought that they were never going to see a movie this awesome in their lives again.  

And they were both excited to wonder where the story could possibly go from here.

Swallow this

And so there you have it.  My plea to the world to stop looking at The Matrix as a part of a franchise, and to just go back and watch it again for what it really is.  It is a one-off superhero origin story.  Featuring the underrated Keanu Reeves, the memorable Carrie-Ann Moss running around in PVC black leather, Laurence Fishburne as Black Miyagi, Joey Pants as Cypher, philosophy and science fiction allegories coming out the yin yang, and Agent Smith, who is quite simply one of the greatest movie villains in movie history.

Wax on wax off motherfucker


There are very few IMDB 8.7 movies that I am going to claim are underloved, but The Matrix has earned that argument because it is awesome.  It was awesome in 1999, and it is awesome today.  And people forget that.  This movie shouldn't be an 8.7, it should be much closer to a 9.7.

Please.  I must implore you.   For the love of all that is good and holy please stop thinking of The Matrix as a part of a franchise.

* My favorite IMDB user reviews about The Matrix:

Ignore the sequels, this is The One - 14 July 2007
"The Matrix" is the driving force behind a string of half-arsed sci-fi/fantasy films (including 2 bloated and inferior Matrix sequels) that have appeared (and sunk without trace) in its wake since 1999. This film had a similar cultural impact to the original "Star Wars" and its high rating is well deserved. Often imitated but seldom equaled, "The Matrix" set so many new standards that it became sci-fi's yardstick for the new millennium.

It has that potent blend of action, adventure, philosophy and sex appeal that distinguishes a classic blockbuster movie from all the summer season also-rans. Name me one other big-hitting action movie from 1999. You're struggling, aren't you?

Of course you are. "The Matrix" was one of the first films to use "Bullet Time" camera effects in its gravity-defying slow-motion stunts. The bone-crunching fights and action sequences were choreographed by a Chinese martial arts master. The soundtrack was littered with catchy tunes. The dialogue was peppered with smart one-liners. The female lead spent a lot of time dressed in figure-hugging shiny black PVC costumes. The set design and CGI was awe-inspiring in scale. Did I mention the figure-hugging shiny black PVC?

"The Matrix" is lightning in a bottle. The Wachowski brothers tried to capture it in 2 subsequent attempts and failed. Fortunately the formulaic sequels haven't dimmed the appeal of the original film.

I watched this the other week for the first time in years and i was still blown away by the it visually. - 10 December 2012
I watched this the other week for the first time in years and i was still blown away by it visually. When The Matrix was released, it was such a landmark in the world of sci-fi, with its imaginative, creative, original and clever storyline, everything about it is just unbelievably fantastic. The action scenes and special effects still hold up just beautifully and will blow you away. The Matrix is one of those films that had to be seen at the cinema. I would love to watch this again on the big screen. Once you watch The Matrix you will never ever forget it for a long time, as it just keeps playing on your mind. The storyline is amazing and will blow your mind. The entire film is oozing with style and atmosphere from start to finish and all the characters who will take you on that journey you just don't want to end. The film sends out a very good and philosophical message. Yes. This film has it all. The Matrix is a true genre classic by the Wachowskis.

A great epic that sets the stage for the next level in sci-fi... - 27 April 2000
Who is to say what is real or not? We are defined by our view of reality, no matter how twisted or demented it is in comparison to 'normal' people. *evil eye* Yes, I see you all, looking in the mirror, trying to decipher whether or not your view is the reality we all share.

The Matrix not only supplies the world with a whole new level of special effects mixed with style and substance, it also brings a whole new meaning to the word 'paranoria'. This is one of those great epics that becomes a milestone in our present day world, a mark for which just about everybody can appreciate. Not since the original Star Wars trilogy has a science fiction film reached across almost the entire population and gripped it with awesome special effects, great sound, and a overall feel of ground breaking movie making magic. It also serves up a good dose of paranoid delusions we all need in our lives every now and then.

With that, I leave you with the fact that I've seen more different types of people liking this one film than most other film to date. Move over George Lucas, you may have just met your match... :)

What is the Matrix? Well, one of the best films ever, for one thing... - 3 March 2001
The Matrix...when I first heard about it, I expected just another sci-fi action thriller. Good and filled with insane stunts, but not terribly intelligent.

Boy, was I wrong. Oh, the stunts are there in spades, all right, and yes, they are awesome. And the special effects are absolutely amazing (even if similar ones have been used in other movies as a result- and not explained as well).

But the movie has plot as well. It has characters that I cared about. From Keanu Reeves' excellent portrayal of Neo, the man trying to come to grips with his own identity, to Lawrence Fishburne's mysterious Morpheus, and even the creepy Agents, everyone does a stellar job of making their characters more than just the usual action "hero that kicks butt" and "cannon fodder" roles. I cared about each and every one of the heroes, and hated the villains with a passion. It has a plot, and it has a meaning...and lo and behold, a plot does help the fight scenes! Just try it, if you haven't seen the movie before. Watch one of the fight scenes. Then watch the whole movie. There's a big difference in the feeling and excitement of the scenes- sure, they're great as standalones, but the whole thing put together is an experience unlike just about everything else that's come to the theaters. Think about it next time you're watching one of the more brainless action flicks...think how much better it COULD be.

All I can say is WATCH THIS MOVIE. If you haven't, you're missing out on one of the best films of all time. It isn't just special effects, folks.

The more you watch it, the better it gets - 23 April 2002
The Wachowski brothers really did excel themselves with this movie. It's a brilliant movie on a number of different levels - the directing is excellent, the camera work is great, the visuals are stunning, the kung-fu is A+, acting is executed with style and conviction, and the plot is truly inspired. It's really hard to use enough superlatives on this movie!

It'd be a 10/10, except for the ending. Having Neo do what he does at the end really lets it down, in my opinion. However, there's a couple of sequels on the way, so let's see what the Wachowskis can do to make up for it.

Other than that, (and like I said above) the movie is operating on so many different levels that each time you watch it, you pick up something new... this isn't by accident, either. The Wachowski brothers had the actors read a number of definitive works (Simulation & Simulcra was one I believe) in modern literature and psychology, and applied liberal dashings of aspects of the major religions to provide the best sci-fi movie of the decade, if not ever.

I'm yet to meet somebody who hasn't enjoyed it. It's my favourite movie to watch on a good cinema system, too.

True Cinematic Achievement - 30 January 2005
In the year 1999, "The Matrix" and "Fight Club" were undoubtedly the best films of the year. The Matrix was truly revolutionary in special effects, specifically in CGI (Computer-Generated-Imaging) technology. The still cameras that were used to capture multiple angles of a single shot, in bullet-time technology, was a creative new approach. The film is initially suspenseful with people not knowing quite what was happening until Morpheus (Lawrence Fishburne) reveals that Neo's (Keanu Reeves) reality was actually a fabricated world that is an elaborate simulation created by machines. Neo and the majority of the world's inhabitants have been stuck in simply a mental simulation prison.

The magnitude of philosophy in sync with special effects make "The Matrix" a one-of-a-kind movie masterpiece. College classes show this movie in their philosophy class, and at the same time can prove to be one of the best special effects movies ever. Supplementally, "The Matrix" also provides endless action and a pretty solid storyline that influences the philosophical ideas in the movie.

There are so many great things in this movie, it is just crazy.

The color palette along with the time and effort put into stunts also accelerates this movie on all filming levels. "The Matrix" leaves the viewer a sense of pride in the world he/she can live in to just know that people are capable of creating at this level. Unfortunately, monetary and timing motives offset the potential quality of the sequels. "The Matrix Reloaded" and "The Matrix Revolutions" were just a waste of time and weren't carefully thought out, unlike the first Matrix.

Even 10 years later, a classic that retains its relevance. - 11 March 2009
"I know what you're thinking, 'cause right now I'm thinking the same thing. Actually, I've been thinking it ever since I got here: Why oh why didn't I take the blue pill?" - Cypher

If there was one sci-fi movie that defined the 90's, it would have to "The Matrix," arriving late in the game in the year of 1999. With school-shootings and "Y2K" bugs baring down on the masses, it was only appropriate that a sleeper-hit such as this one came along to truly capture and define the end of the century. Whether it was fate or chance, the brothers Wachowski managed to create a film that not only captured the imaginations of its audience as well as played off its fears, but a film that -- ten years later -- holds up and marks a high point in American film-making. Simultaneously matching and surpassing the groundbreaking special effects and outlandish action-sequences of 1991's "Terminator 2: Judgment Day," "The Matrix" set a precedent that no modern film has yet to live up to, despite the mixed feelings that stem from its two sequels.

Imagine everything you know is not real. A fabrication, as a matter of fact. Your whole life, you've been asleep, dreaming that you're living out your rote, uneventful existence. You constantly search for answers, for the meaning of your own existence, to no avail. That is, until somebody opens your eyes, waking you to a new reality, a new world. A world where you are an unknowing slave to technology (subtle social commentary, eh?) and the world you thought you knew is nothing more than a computer program fed to you while you sleep. Such is the premise of "The Matrix." Keanu Reeves plays Thomas Andersen, a computer hacker who lives at his computer and could care less to socialize, let alone get up and go to work each day. He lives in cyberspace under the codename "Neo," not realizing that he himself is being pursued. Soon, he is extracted from the fabricated world – The Matrix – and faces a harsh reality through the assistance of a philosophical leader by the name of "Morpheus" (Laurence Fishburne) and a fellow hacker, "Trinity" (Carrie-Anne Moss), where he comes to learn his purpose is astronomical, Christ-like, even. He does battle against the agents – led by the sinister Agent Smith (Hugo Weaving) -- who keep The Matrix in check, all in an effort to salvage what remains of the free-thinking human race.

Notorious for its mind-bending special effects as much as it is for its philosophical and religious undertones, "The Matrix" is a film that, as it nears its tenth anniversary, remains relevant today. With repeated viewings, the film still looks fresh and feels brand new. Despite the fact that the "Man vs. Machine" theme present has been done to death in other films, it is tackled by the script in a way that is both unconventional and definitive. Its impact was immediately felt on pop-culture, and still resonates today. It's more than just loud, shoot-em-up fun with stunning visuals. It's also a timeless portrait of where society currently sits and where its unknown future is heading. Social commentary aside, though, it's still incredible entertainment. A well-rounded, well-made film that will stretch the imagination for years and whose impact should hold up as a benchmark for future classics to live up to.

* My favorite trivia about The Matrix:

* In the combat training program before Keanu Reeves starts his furious attacks on Morpheus, he rubs his nose with his thumb and finger, a similar mannerism of Bruce Lee before he attacks on his opponents. The move was improvised by Reeves.

* Nicolas Cage turned down the part of Neo because of family commitments. Other actors considered for the role included Tom Cruise and Leonardo DiCaprio.

* Will Smith was approached to play Neo, but turned down the offer in order to star in Wild Wild West. He later admitted that, at the time, he was "not mature enough as an actor" and that, if given the role, he "would have messed it up".

* According to Don Davis, Johnny Depp was Larry and Andy's first choice for Neo, but Warner Bros. wanted Brad Pitt or Val Kilmer. After Kilmer and Brad Pitt said no, Warner Bros. was willing to consider Johnny Depp, and then it came between Johnny Depp and Keanu Reeves, who Warner Bros. was pushing. Keanu was always really tuned in to the concept and made a big difference in the casting.

* For the cell phone conversation scene between Neo and Morpheus in the Meta Cortechs office Keanu Reeves actually climbed up the window without a stuntman, which was 34 floors up.

* The Wachowski Bros. simply described Trinity as "a woman in black leather" in the script, but it was interpreted tremendously by costume designer Kym Barrett.

* Some personal information can be seen on Thomas Anderson's "criminal record" that Agent Smith glances at when he interrogates Neo: The last update to the file was July 22, 1998 Neo's date of birth is "March 11, 1962" Neo's place of birth is "Lower Downtown, Capitol City" Neo's mother's maiden name is "Michelle McCahey" Neo's father's name is "John Anderson" Neo attended "Central West Junior High" and "Owen Paterson High" (named after the film's production designer). Seconds later a photocopy of his passport can be seen. There the place of his birth is CAPITAL CITY USA, his date of birth is the 13th of September 1971, the passport was issued on the 12th of September 1991 and will expire on the 11th of September 2001.

* "Know thyself", the phrase in the kitchen of the "oracle", was the inscription above the entrance of the Delphic Oracle.

* The name of the company Neo works for is Metacortex. The roots of this word are meta-, which according to Webster's means "going beyond or higher, transcending," and -cortex, which is "the outer layer (boundary) of gray matter surrounding the brain." Thus, Metacortex is "transcending the boundaries of the brain," which is precisely what Neo proceeds to do.

* By the middle of 2002, the famous "Bullet Time" sequence had been spoofed in over 20 different movies.

* Before his character's final speech at the end, Keanu Reeves never has more than five sentences in a row to speak.

* Numerous sets of identical twins were cast as extras in the "Woman in Red" scene - in which Morpheus takes Neo through a computer simulation of The Matrix - to create the illusion of a repeating program. Example: the tall man with slicked-back hair and sunglasses in the opening shot is seen seconds later as a police officer writing a parking ticket.

* The spring-loaded cell phones used in the film were Nokia Stilleto's or 8110's. These phones were produced in limited quantities and were only available in Europe and in Australia.

* The Wachowski Brothers approached Warner with the idea of the Matrix and Warner balked at the budget they had submitted, which was over $80 million. Warner instead agreed to give them ten million. The Wachowski Brothers took the money and filmed the first ten minutes of the movie (the opening scene with Carrie-Anne Moss) using the entire ten million. They then showed the executives at Warner the opening scene. They were impressed, they green lighted the entire asking budget.

* All scenes that take place within the Matrix have a green tint, as if watching them through a computer monitor, while scenes in the real world have normal coloring. The fight scene between Morpheus and Neo, which is neither in the real world nor in the Matrix, is tinted yellow.

* By filming in Australia, the film-makers kept the final budget at $60 million. The movie would not have been green-lit by Warner Bros. otherwise because it would have cost a then-record $180 million for a U.S.-based production.

* The studio insisted on a great deal of explanatory dialog as they described the screenplay as "the script that nobody understands".

* All the color blue was sucked out of the exterior shots to convey how grim the world of the Matrix actually is.

* When Larry and Andy Wachowski's screenplay for Assassins was being made for producer Joel Silver, the brothers brought Silver the script to "The Matrix". The producer was bowled over by their screenplay but not by the brothers' insistence that they direct the film themselves. He told them to cut their teeth by directing something else instead, hence the reason why they made Bound. The success of that lesbian crime thriller proved to be the calling card that the Wachowskis needed to earn the trust from Warner Brothers to direct "The Matrix" themselves.

* For Keanu Reeves's scenes set in the real world at the start of the film, his costumes were deliberately shabby and ill-fitting to suggest Thomas Anderson's feeling of not quite fitting into the world.

* In Greek Mythology Morpheus is the god of dreams. Somewhat ironic considering Morpheus' role here is to awaken people from their dream states to reality.

* Gillian Anderson turned down the role of Trinity.

* The hotel and room number where Neo has to pick up the phone to get out of the Matrix (at the end) are the same where Trinity awaits the police in the beginning of the movie.

* My favorite scene in The Matrix:

There are at least 25 great moments in The Matrix that still hold up well amazingly today, but one that I have always thought was underrated (and I pointed it out in my review above) was the shot of the helicopter crashing into the side of the glass building with Trinity swinging to safety in the foreground.  I defy you to find many cooler looking effects in a movie than that one.

The Matrix at the IMDB

The Matrix at Wikipedia

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